Improving health and reducing inequities worldwide


Toolbox for conducting integrated HIV bio-behavioral surveillance (IBBS) in key populations

This toolbox is for governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private researchers who wish to implement IBBS surveys for key populations at higher risk for HIV infection. The toolbox features two methods

  • Time location sampling (TLS)
  • Respondent driven sampling (RDS)

These methods focus on three key populations at higher risk for HIV infection

  • Female sex workers (FSW)
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • Persons who inject drugs (PWID)

However, these tools are easily modifiable for other sampling designs as appropriate. This tool box is complete with everything you would need to implement a survey. These documents are based on our years of experience implementing IBBS all over the world, including San Francisco, CA, USA; eight countries in Africa; Brazil; China and the Caribbean.

By downloading any of these documents, you are agreeing to our Terms of Use.


Getting started

Formative assessment

Field implementation

Using results (PDF)

  • Interpreting and disseminating survey findings
  • Publications
  • Using evidence to inform HIV prevention interventions
  • Resources and references

UC San Francisco's Global Strategic Information unit within Global Health Sciences along with the San Francisco Department of Public Health's HIV Epidemiology section has created this free and publicly available toolbox in order to complement what we do every day: provide training, technical assistance and active mentoring in a variety of effective methodologies for domestic and international surveillance. Essential to our approach are surveillance tools that can be locally adapted and used to produce high-quality, user friendly, practical, reliable and reproducible data that will inform policy and programs to improve the health of HIV-affected populations and reduce the spread of the virus.