Improving health and reducing inequities worldwide



E2Pi focuses on key issues and decisions facing the multilateral financing institutions, particularly the World Bank and three major innovative financing partnerships for global health—the GAVI Alliance; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), including the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm); and UNITAID.

These multilateral health financers face a range of complex strategic and policy questions related to their future direction, funding, and business models.

In collaboration with SEEK Development, E2Pi has produced profiles of:

In order to facilitate cross-cutting comparisons across the partnerships, each profile has the same structure:

  • About the partnership
  • Resource mobilization
  • Financing portfolio
  • Organizational structures and governance
  • Funding process
  • Results
  • Outlook.


These profiles were funded through a general operating support grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the Global Health Group at UCSF, with a subcontract to SEEK Development. The foundation has been a major donor to the Global Fund, the GAVI Alliance, and UNITAID and has also given funding to the World Bank. The foundation played no role in writing these profiles.


The profiles on the Global Fund and GAVI Alliance were written by authors at SEEK Development (Marco Schäferhoff, and Christina Schrade), and E2Pi at the UCSF Global Health Group (Gavin Yamey). Research assistance was provided by Emil Richter, Janina Schnick, and Raimund Zühr (SEEK Development).
The profile on UNITAID was written by Gavin Yamey, Marco Schäferhoff, Amy Lockwood (in her previous capacity as a global health consultant; she is now Deputy Director, Center for Innovation in Global Health, Stanford University), and Christina Schrade. The profile on the World Bank was written by Emil Richter, Marco Schäferhoff, Christina Schrade, and Gavin Yamey.

Competing Interests:

Marco Schäferhoff declares that he was part of the study team that estimated benchmarks of success in the AMFm. He is also managing a project commissioned by the Global Fund and conducted by SEEK Development on technical assistance contributions of major Global Fund donors. He has been sub-contracted by ITAD to work on the 5-year evaluation of UNITAID. Christina Schrade declares that she was a senior staff member of the Global Fund. She also works as a consultant for the GAVI Alliance. Gavin Yamey declares that E2Pi has received funding from the Global Fund to estimate benchmarks of success in the AMFm, and from the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI, a UNITAID grantee) to conduct evidence syntheses and policy analyses related to sustained malaria control. He has been sub-contracted by ITAD to work on the 5-year evaluation of UNITAID. Amy Lockwood declares that her previous employer, CHAI, received grant funding from UNITAID. The authors declare no personal competing interests related to the World Bank.