Thanks to aggressive campaigns to scale up control tools, many malaria-endemic countries have seen dramatic falls in malaria cases and deaths. These gains are impressive, but are fragile. If these successful countries were to reduce their malaria control activities while the potential for malaria transmission remains, all of the gains will be lost because malaria will rapidly resurge. Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control, launched on October 17, 2011 at the Gates Foundation Malaria Forum, shows that if these successful countries can sustain their control activities, they will reap impressive public health and economic benefits. The report, co-authored by the African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA), the Evidence to Policy Initiative (E2Pi) in UCSF’s Global Health Group, and the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), is accompanied by five country briefs focused on Ethiopia, Rwanda, Senegal, and Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar).